Case studies with relay pcbs

Relays are traditional building blocks in control devices. Their advantage of handling high currents or voltages with minimal power consumption makes them widely used for controlling motors, lamps, heaters and other high power electrical devices.

There is a huge variety of switching circuits that use relays. When managed with microcontrollers it's very simple and easy way to make complex applications. The input can be from switch buttons, keyboard or different sensors.

Dental Cup Filling Module: Enhancing Efficiency with Automation


In dental practices, the process of filling cups with water for patient use is a routine yet crucial task. This example presents the traditional solutions and the automation of the filling process.

Our Solution:

Traditional digital circuitry solutions are:

  • Manual Control (Button Press and Hold):
  • Dentist manually initiates and monitors the filling process. Requires continuous attention to prevent overflow and ensure cup placement.
  • Trigger Scheme (Start/Stop Button Press):
  • Dentist initiates filling with one button press, stops with another. Involves active supervision to manage the filling process effectively.
  • Multivibrator Scheme (Fixed Time Filling):
  • Filling occurs for a predetermined time after a single button press. Dentist needs to time the filling and monitor cup placement.

Automation solutions are:

  • Semi-Automatic Solution:
  • Dentist presses the button, and filling initiates only if the cup is detected in its place. Combines manual control with the added benefit of cup presence sensing.
  • Automatic Solution:
  • Filling starts automatically upon placing the cup in its designated spot. Eliminates the need for manual initiation, streamlining the process for increased efficiency.

Key Components for Automation:

  • Microcontroller:
  • Controls the overall operation of the filling module. Enables integration with sensors for smart decision-making.
  • Cup Presence Sensor:
  • Detects whether the cup is correctly positioned before initiating the filling process.
  • Water Level Sensor:
  • Monitors the water level to ensure precise and controlled filling.


The dental cup filling module, traditionally managed through manual control schematics, can significantly benefit from automation. The introduction of a microcontroller and sensors enhances efficiency, precision, and user-friendliness.